Congestive heart failure

Characteristics

Congestive heart failure is the most important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world.

The hypervolemia that characterizes the excessive bi-ventricular load in congestive heart failure is a consequence of the activation of neurohormonal factors and hydro-saline retention constituting a vicious circle of an increased load on a heart with insufficient capacity to handle the load (blood flow) bringing as a consequence greater dilation of the cardiac chambers, less cardiac output activating the neurohormonal axis and hydro-saline retention which leads to increased hypervolemia finally taking the heart to greater dilation and, of course, to a situation completely outside its original design, with less efficiency and greater pulmonary congestion.

The main symptoms of congestive heart failure are consequences of the hypervolemia which leads to pulmonary congestion and the low blood flow to the organism’s tissues.

In addition, the dyspnoea (Shortness of breath), the cough, appear as part of the symptomology of the disease. Another symptom is the pedal edema, loss of appetite, dizziness, urgency to urinate at night (nicturia) and increased heart rate (tachycardia).

Apart from the physical symptoms of congestive heart failure, some people feel affected by the severity of the disease and present emotional symptoms, such as depression and anxiety.